2.每小题选出答案后,用 2B 铅笔把答题纸上对应题目的答案标号涂黑。如需改动,用橡皮擦干净后,再选涂其他答案标号。不能答在试题卷上。
Part I Reading Comprehension (60 marks, 60 minutes)
Section A ( 50 marks: 2 marks for each item )
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C, and D. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet I.
Question 1to 5 are based on the following passage:
A U. N. report says water is in demand around the world as temperatures on Earth’s surface rise and demand grows along with populations. The report was released this week at the World Water Forum in Brasilia. The conference has been described as the world’s largest water-related event.
Federal District Governor Rodrigo Rollemberg spoke at a panel discussion on Tuesday at the forum. He described water shortages as a worldwide problem. The public water supply has less water because of low rainfall as well as fast and disorderly growth in Brasilia, which is part of the Federal District, Rollemberg said. In January 2016, after three years of little rain, district officials began limiting how much water people could use. The governments of the Federal District and the nearby state of Goias also gave $166 million to develop water infrastructure (基础设施).
Demand around the world is expected to increase by nearly one-third by 2050. By then, 5 billion people could be left with poor access to water, the U. N. warned in its 2018 World Water Development Report. To avoid such a crisis, U. N. officials called for “nature-based solutions” that use or copy natural processes that should be used to increase water availability. They said solutions could include changing farming methods so fields keep more moisture and nutrients, collecting rainwater, and protecting wetlands. The officials also proposed reestablishing floodplains and said that plants could be grown on housetops. Such proposals will become more important as water industries grow.
1. Who talked about water shortages in Brasilia at a panel discussion?
A. A journalist. B. A U. N. official.
C. A Federal District official. D. An official from the state of Goias.
【解析】细节题。由第二段第一二句Federal District Governor Rodrigo Rollemberg spoke at a panel discussion on Tuesday at the forum. He described water shortages as a worldwide problem. 不难得出答案为C。governor 和official都是管理者的意思。
2. What is among the reasons for less public water supply in Brasilia?
A. Waste of rainwater. B. Insufficient rainfall.
C. Growing plants on the roofs. D. Development in infrastructure.
【解析】细节题。原文第二段第三句话The public water supply has less water because of low rainfall as well as fast and disorderly growth in Brasilia…。这句话中谈到是由于low rainfall，那么答案对应的是B选项，其中的insufficient看起来很长，是“不足”的意思，所以与原文的low是相对应的，故选B。
3. What did the Federal District government do to deal with water shortages?
A. They controlled population.
B. They limited water consumption.
C. They invested in artificial rainmaking.
D. They suggested “nature-based solutions”.
【解析】细节题。定位文章第二段倒数第二句In January 2016, after three years of little rain, district officials began limiting how much water people could use.可知，政府限制居民用水。
4. What is NOT a “nature-based solution”?
A. Gathering rainwater. B. Preserving wetlands.
C. Sustaining water in soil. D. Building houses on floodplains.
【解析】细节题。运用排除法。从第三段倒数第五句They said solutions could include changing farming methods... reestablishing floodplains 可知collecting rainwater=gathering rainwater protecting wetlands=preserving wetlands reestablishing floodplains=building houses on floodplains 考生在做题时要注意积累阅读中相关同义词汇，如collect=gather protect=preserve sustain water in soil维持土壤中水分，而D选项并未提到在河漫滩上建造房子。
5. What is the main idea of this passage?
A. Brasilia is facing the problem of water shortages.
B. The world has found a solution to water shortages.
C. The world is facing the problem of water shortages.
D. A report was released at the World Water Forum in Brasilia.
【解析】主旨大意题。主旨大意题一般在文章第一段，并结合整篇文章，整篇文章都是在说全世界都在面临着水资源短缺The world is facing the problem of water shortages。A选项单单说Brasilia(巴西利亚，巴西的首都)面临水资源短缺，片面。B和D只是文章中提到的小点，并不是整篇文章的主旨。
Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following passage:
The Queen has only given one interview while a sovereign (君主). Her true personality remains elusive to the public. However, one thing is clear: Queen Elizabeth is an introvert. Introverts prefer quiet environments and feel energized from spending time alone or with people they know well. They aren’t necessarily shy, but they do tend to be more reserved and guarded with strangers. Fellow introverts will appreciate how draining an average day for Her Majesty must be.
Fortunately, the Queen has some tricks to make public engagements easier. Just like us commoners rely on friends to save us from awkward situations or boring conversations, she subtly signals to her staff when she wants an intervention. If she places her handbag on the table, it indicates that she wants the event to end in the next five minutes. For more urgent situations, putting her bag on the floor shows that she wants her lady-in-waiting to rescue her immediately.
Most comfortable in the countryside, the Queen has a well-known passion for horses and dogs. There is a scene in the hit Netflix show The Crown which reveals a fascinating side of the monarch. While giving Jackie Kennedy a personal tour of Buckingham Palace, the two women find themselves bonding over their respective positions as introverted women who have found themselves in the limelight. Surrounded by the Queen’s beloved corgis, both women admit they are happiest around animals and that their extroverted sisters would have been much better suited to their public roles.
6. The underlined word “draining”(paragraph 1) is the closest in meaning to “ ”.
A. frustrating B. exhausting C. demanding D. aspiring
【解析】单词意思题。Fellow introverts will appreciate how draining an average day for Her Majesty must be大意为内向者欣赏女王陛下如何“度过”她的一天，ABCD选项中，只有exhausting有耗尽，用完的意思。frustrating令人沮丧的;exhausting使消耗的，筋疲力尽的;demanding苛求的，要求高的;aspiring有抱负的。
7. To be rescued immediately in a public engagement, the Queen would .
A. end the event within five minutes B. place he handbag on the table
C. wave to her lady-in-waiting D. put her bag on the floor
【解析】细节题。找到文中关键词immediately。根据第二段For more urgent... rescue her immediately可知如果情况更紧急，把她的包放在地板上表明她希望她的侍女立即救她，故选D。
8. In the last paragraph, the underlined expression “the two women find themselves bonding over their respective positions” means that the two ladies .
A. admire each other B. help each other in public
C. grow closer to each other D. show respect for each other
【解析】单词意思题。 定位最后一段the two women find themselves bonding over their respective positions，这句话的意思是两位女士发现她们自己拉近了与各自不同立场的关系。此处 bond over拉近距离。与之相同含义的是C grow closer变得更亲近，值得注意此处respect 不是尊重的意思，而是各自的，不同的。
9. Queen Elizabeth and Jackie Kennedy share the following traits or facts EXCEPT that .
A. both have sisters B. both love animals
C. both enjoy being in public D. both are introverted women
【解析】细节题，运用排除法。Queen Elizabeth 和 Jackie Kennedy除了哪个品质不一样。定位到最后一段倒数一二段，以及文章开头，说Queen Elizabeth is an introvert。Introvert内向的，由此可知，both enjoy being in public，两个人都喜欢在公众面前展现是不对的。
10. The author’s attitude can be described as .
A. neutral B. critical C. pessimistic D. subjective